No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.
a. Subject to the rights of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, following the closing of the Initial Public Offering, neither the Board nor any individual director may be removed without cause.
b. Subject to any limitation imposed by law, any individual director or directors may be removed with cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66 2/3%) of the voting power of all then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company entitled to vote generally at an election of directors.
4. Vacancies. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancies on the Board resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other causes, and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors, shall, unless the Board determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by the stockholders, except as otherwise provided by law, be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board, and not by the stockholders. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the director for which the vacancy was created or occurred and until such directors successor shall have been elected and qualified.
C. BYLAW AMENDMENTS. The Board is expressly empowered to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the Company. Any adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws of the Company by the Board shall require the approval of a majority of the authorized number of directors. The stockholders shall also have power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the Company; provided, however, that, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the Company required by law or by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, such action by stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66 2/3%) of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the capital stock of the Company entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
D. WRITTEN BALLOTS. The directors of the Company need not be elected by written ballot unless the Bylaws so provide.
E. ACTION BY STOCKHOLDERS. No action shall be taken by the stockholders of the Company except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with the Bylaws and no action shall be taken by the stockholders by written consent or electronic transmission.
F. ADVANCE NOTICE. Advance notice of stockholder nominations for the election of directors and of business to be brought by stockholders before any meeting of the stockholders of the Company shall be given in the manner provided in the Bylaws of the Company.