in rent payments during the lease term. The Company is amortizing the escalation in rental payments on a straight‑line basis over the term of the lease.
Guarantees and Indemnifications
The Company has accrued $2.8 million and $4.5 million at September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, representing the Company's best estimate of the ultimate tax indemnification and gross-up payment to be made to Dr. Kaspar pursuant to a tax indemnification granted to Dr. Kaspar in connection with a restricted common stock grant (see Note 5).
Additionally, in the normal course of business, the Company has entered into agreements that contain a variety of representations and provide for general indemnification, including indemnification agreements with the Company’s officers and directors. The Company's exposure under these agreements is unknown because it involves claims that may be made against the Company in the future. To date, the Company has not paid any claims or been required to defend any action related to these indemnification obligations. As of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Company did not have any material indemnification claims related to these agreements that were probable or reasonably possible and consequently has not recorded any related liabilities.
On September 8, 2016, Sophia's Cure Foundation ("SCF"), a non-profit 501(c)(3) public charity, filed a complaint in U.S. District Court, Southern District of Ohio, naming as defendants Nationwide Children's Hospital ("NCH") and other entities affiliated with NCH, the Company and certain of the Company's present and former executives (the "Complaint"). According to the complaint, in 2012, SCF and Nationwide Children’s Hospital Foundation (“NCH Foundation”) entered into a donation agreement under which SCF provided NCH a gift of $550,000 to fund clinical work associated with the study of the product candidate that the Company now refers to as AVXS-101 for SMA Type 1 patients, and NCH Foundation agreed in such donation agreement to reference SCF as the "primary sponsor" of such clinical work in all publications issued by NCH Foundation. The complaint also alleges that NCH breached the donation agreement by not naming SCF as the sponsor of the investigational new drug application (the "IND") that it filed for AVXS-101. Additionally, the complaint alleges that the Company and the named Company executives tortiously interfered with SCF's rights under the donation agreement by assuming sponsorship of the IND under the NCH License. There is no contractual relationship between the Company and SCF. The complaint seeks, among other relief, monetary damages of $500.0 million and equitable relief, including taking steps to designate SCF as the sponsor of the IND. On October 10, 2017, the Court granted all of the defendants’ motions to dismiss. On October 31, 2017, SCF filed a second amended complaint against all of the defendants except two of the Company’s present executives, who were dropped from the second amended complaint. The Company believes that the second amended complaint is without merit and intends to vigorously defend itself and its present and former executives from the allegations. The Company views the possibility of loss in this matter to be remote.
Lawsuits may be asserted against the Company in the normal course of business. Based on information currently available, management believes that the disposition of any matters, including the matter involving SCF described above, will not have a material adverse effect on the financial position, results of operations or cash flows of the Company.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company has evaluated the positive and negative evidence bearing upon the realizability of its deferred tax assets, including its net operating losses. Based on its history of operating losses, the Company believes that it is more likely than not that the benefit of its deferred tax assets will not be realized. Accordingly, the Company has provided a full valuation allowance for deferred tax assets as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016.